Paperback Langenscheidts Sprachfuhrer-Presented copy of a small yellow Italian phrasebook, the presentation is to Erich Priebke. Priebke was a German mid-level SS commander with the SS police. On the 23rd of March 1944, 33 German SS Police were killed when the Italian Resistance set off a bomb and attacked the SS men with firearms and grenades while they were marching along Via Rasella in Rome. Adolf Hitler is reported, but never confirmed, to have ordered that within 24 hours, ten condemned Italians were to be shot for each dead German. Commander Kappler in Rome quickly compiled a list of 320 prisoners to be killed. Kappler voluntarily added ten more names to the list when the 33rd German died after the partisan attack. The total number of people executed at the Fosse Ardeatine was 335, mostly Italian. The largest cohesive group among those executed were the members of Bandiera Rossa (Red Flag), a dissident-communist military resistance group, along with more than 70 Jews. On 24 March, led by SS officers Priebke and Karl Hass, the victims were killed inside the Ardeatine caves in groups of five. Priebke was one of the men held responsible for this mass execution. In 1996, he was convicted of war crimes in Italy, for commanding the unit which was responsible for the Ardeatine massacre. After the defeat of Nazi Germany, he fled to Argentina, where he lived for almost 50 years. He lived until October 2013, and he died at 100 years old.